Santé Mentale

Impact du chômage sur la santé mentale

Chômage et santé mentale Posted On
Posted By Alex Perez - Mental Health Writer, B.A.

Chômage et santé mentale

Il est bien connu que les chômeurs ont une moins bonne santé mentale que leurs homologues employés (Kasl SV, Jones BA, 2000). Pendant les crises économiques, les taux de suicide augmentent généralement et le chômage est associé au malheur, à la dépression, à la toxicomanie et à une longue liste d’impacts sur les gens. (1)

Les personnes les plus à risque de problèmes de santé mentale après une perte d’emploi sont celles pour qui le chômage est une menace immédiate pour la survie. Selon une méta-analyse menée par Frances McKee-Ryan, PhD, professeure de gestion à l’Université du Nevada, Reno (Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2005).

Chômage

Chômage et santé mentale

Population sous le seuil de pauvreté

Chômage et santé mentale

Taux de suicide

Chômage et santé mentale

10 pays avec les taux bruts de suicide les plus élevés

Chômage et santé mentale

Aperçu

PAYS% POP. SOUS SEUIL PAUVRETECHOMAGE %TAUX SUICIDE BRUT PAR 100,000 DEPRESSION %ANXIETE %
Lesotho5724,492,40214,8%3,1%
Guyana3513,4637,32744,5%5,7%
Eswatini58,923,4435,0677N/AN/A
Lithuania22,29,1234,85855,6%3,2%
Russian Federation13,35,5732,04825,5%3,1%
Kiribati259,329,72833,1%3,2%
South Korea14,44,77284,10%3,80%
Suriname707,2224,76174,8%5,8%
South Africa16,625,1524,5224,6%3,4%
Belarus5,75,9124,33135,6%3,2%
Kazakhstan2,64,9323,24474,4%3,3%
Ukraine3,89,1421,62126,3%3,2%
Latvia25,59,8721,59674,9%3,2%
Slovenia13,98,9621,04075,1%3,8%
Montenegro8,617,5420,71514,8%3,8%
Mongolia29,64,8620,00534,2%3,3%
Hungary14,96,8119,94255,1%3,9%
Japan16,13,419,13364,2%3,1%
Botswana19,317,7119,0454,7%3,1%
Uruguay9,77,4918,64315,0%6,4%
Belgium15,18,4818,59864,8%4,7%
Vanuatu12,71,8118,16583,1%3,2%
Zimbabwe72,35,2917,95584,0%2,8%
Croatia19,516,1817,60535,1%3,8%
Serbia8,917,6616,35555,0%3,8%
Austria35,7215,99575,1%4,9%
Estonia21,16,1915,88925,9%3,2%
Poland17,67,515,85315,1%3,9%
France14,210,3515,83834,8%6,2%
Sweden157,4315,73184,9%4,8%
Sri Lanka6,74,5215,16164,1%3,4%
Switzerland6,64,814,96385,0%4,9%
Central African Republic624,314,44314,2%3,0%
Cabo Verde3011,914,41294,9%3,1%
United States15,15,2814,39915,9%6,3%
Iceland93,9814,25714,1%4,9%
Finland12,39,3814,03165,6%3,2%
Cuba262,414,03145,5%6,1%
Mozambique46,13,4313,90924,1%3,0%
Czech Republic9,75,0513,56995,2%3,8%
Germany16,74,6213,26675,2%5,8%
Australia13,26,0513,22495,9%7,0%
Portugal1912,4413,20745,7%4,9%
Canada9,46,9112,99324,7%4,9%
Samoa18,88,6612,65753,2%3,3%
Norway0,54,312,45834,7%7,4%
Slovak Republic12,311,4812,41125,1%3,9%
India21,95,5612,27154,5%3,0%
Luxembourg18,36,6712,17495,0%4,9%
Netherlands8,86,8711,78184,7%6,4%
New Zealand155,3511,72025,4%7,3%
Eritrea506,6611,64754,3%3,1%
Namibia28,720,8911,64214,4%3,1%
Romania22,46,8111,51385,0%3,7%
Bosnia and Herzegovina16,927,6910,71075,1%3,8%
Georgia9,216,5110,53035,0%3,5%
Korea, Dem. People’s Rep.602,8310,50143,7%3,7%
Trinidad and Tobago202,4310,20015,2%6,1%
Haiti58,513,9510,03734,3%5,5%
Cote d’Ivoire39,53,110,00223,8%2,7%
Chile14,46,519,975,0%6,5%
Kyrgyz Republic32,17,569,894,1%3,2%
Bulgaria23,49,149,835,2%4,0%
Equatorial Guinea448,319,784,2%2,9%
Togo55,12,29,713,9%2,8%
Gabon34,320,229,644,3%3,0%
Cameroon303,519,463,9%2,7%
Fiji314,369,393,5%3,3%
Ireland8,29,919,314,8%6,3%
North Macedonia21,526,079,175,0%3,9%
Uzbekistan145,29,164,2%3,3%
Djibouti2311,399,025,1%3,3%
SingaporeN/A3,798,994,6%3,6%
Pakistan29,53,578,974,2%3,5%
United Kingdom155,38,824,5%4,2%
Ecuador21,53,628,794,6%5,6%
Zambia54,410,18,724,0%3,0%
St. Lucia20,320,678,654,9%5,9%
Nepal25,23,18,523,2%3,6%
Argentina25,77,618,34,7%6,3%
China3,34,68,134,2%3,1%
Benin36,22,578,063,9%2,7%
Thailand7,20,68,044,4%3,5%
Solomon Islands12,70,678,022,9%3,1%
Somalia7313,257,994,0%2,9%
Burkina Faso40,16,047,963,6%2,7%
Mauritius87,417,944,4%3,5%
Spain21,122,067,95,2%4,1%
Vietnam81,857,664,0%2,2%
Morocco159,467,44,5%4,5%
BahrainN/A1,327,394,8%4,3%
Ghana24,26,817,314,2%2,8%
Guinea-Bissau673,017,254,0%2,8%
Malta16,35,387,185,1%4,9%
Guinea474,387,173,9%2,7%
Italy29,911,97,135,1%5,0%
El Salvador32,746,944,4%4,6%
Congo, Dem. Rep.639,96,793,8%2,8%
Chad46,71,876,783,5%2,6%
Costa Rica21,796,734,7%4,6%
Congo, Rep.46,54,46,613,9%2,8%
Angola36,67,266,473,6%2,8%
United Arab Emirates19,51,746,475,1%4,1%
Burundi64,61,556,444,2%3,0%
Bolivia38,63,076,384,4%5,4%
Dominican Republic30,57,616,374,7%5,7%
Senegal46,76,766,363,9%2,7%
Saudi Arabia12,75,596,344,5%4,3%
Iran, Islamic Rep.18,711,066,324,9%4,6%
Turkmenistan0,23,946,294,2%3,4%
Malawi50,75,856,194,1%3,0%
Armenia3218,266,155,0%3,5%
Qatar00,176,115,1%4,2%
Belize417,585,974,4%5,7%
Sierra Leone70,24,645,883,9%2,8%
Brazil4,28,435,875,8%9,3%
Guatemala59,32,515,833,7%4,2%
Paraguay22,24,565,735,2%7,6%
Rwanda39,11,145,723,8%3,2%
Lao PDR220,695,593,2%3,1%
Mexico46,24,315,564,2%3,6%
Libya3318,875,564,5%4,5%
Ethiopia29,62,25,524,7%3,3%
Yemen, Rep.5413,45,513,6%4,1%
Comoros44,88,095,514,4%3,1%
Madagascar70,71,795,484,4%3,1%
Kenya36,12,85,464,4%3,1%
Niger45,40,525,373,4%2,5%
Gambia, The48,49,35,073,9%2,7%
Cambodia16,50,395,063,4%3,2%
Greece3624,95,045,7%4,9%
OmanN/A 3,325,024,7%4,1%
Malaysia3,83,14,833,8%4,9%
Albania14,317,194,764,8%3,8%
CyprusN/A14,914,75,1%5,1%
Uganda21,41,864,674,6%2,8%
Tonga22,52,644,63,2%3,3%
Israel225,254,544,6%2,8%
Liberia54,12,084,493,5%2,7%
Bhutan122,454,494,2%3,7%
Mali36,17,734,283,6%2,6%
Nicaragua29,64,74,234,2%4,5%
Tanzania22,82,14,164,1%3,0%
Tajikistan31,57,534,133,8%3,1%
Colombia288,34,134,7%5,8%
Iraq2310,724,073,7%4,5%
Azerbaijan4,94,964,074,6%3,4%
Honduras29,66,154,024,0%4,3%
Afghanistan54,511,393,973,3%4,0%
Sudan46,517,293,883,6%4,1%
Nigeria704,313,693,9%2,7%
South Sudan6612,453,594,4%3,1%
Timor-Leste41,84,453,513,0%2,9%
Bahamas, The9,3123,465,2%6,2%
Bangladesh24,34,383,414,1%4,4%
Egypt, Arab Rep.27,813,053,283,5%4,2%
St. Vincent and the Grenadines30,219,163,254,9%5,8%
Myanmar25,60,773,183,7%3,3%
Tunisia15,515,163,144,9%4,6%
Mauritania3110,223,034,1%2,8%
Papua New Guinea372,562,953,0%3,2%
Panama2332,94,4%4,5%
Lebanon28,66,312,794,7%5,5%
Maldives155,672,793,7%3,3%
Peru22,72,922,714,8%5,7%
Algeria2311,212,684,5%4,5%
KuwaitN/A2,22,565,0%4,6%
Indonesia10,94,512,363,7%3,3%
Philippines21,63,072,273,3%3,1%
Turkey21,910,242,264,4%4,0%
Venezuela, RB19,77,442,254,2%4,4%
Jamaica17,113,512,24,8%5,7%
Brunei Darussalam57,691,884,0%3,6%
Syrian Arab Republic82,58,51,743,9%4,3%
Sao Tome and Principe66,213,461,463,9%2,7%
Jordan14,213,081,464,0%4,3%
Barbados13,911,350,6015,4%6,1%

Conclusion

« L’essentiel, c’est que les gens ont besoin de manger. Ils ont besoin d’un abri. Ils ont besoin de soins de santé », explique David Blustein, PhD, professeur de psychologie du conseil, du développement et de l’éducation au Boston College.
(2)

Le chômage a un impact négatif et conduit à une altération de la santé mentale de la population en âge de travailler.


  1. https://observatoriosociallacaixa.org/en/-/el-desempleo-dana-la-salud-mental#:~:text=It%20is%20well%20known%20that,list%20of%20impacts%20on%20people.
  2. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/10/toll-job-loss
  3. https://data.un.org/_Docs/SYB/PDFs/SYB63_329_202009_Labour%20Force%20and%20Unemployment.pdf
  4. Https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.sdg.3-4-data?lang=en
  5. https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/crude-suicide-rates-(per-100-000-population)
  6. https://databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=2&series=SL.UEM.TOTL.ZS&country=#
  7. https://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?c=by&v=69
  8. https://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/country_grouping_2016.pdf

Dares analyses .fr (PDF): Chômage et santé mentale, liens ambivalents

Persee.fr (document): Impact du chômage sur la sant;e mentale

Insee.fr: Chômage et santé mentale

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